Better yet, explain the survivors who had their entire penises amputated. Susan, you may be right about how to best approach it — but I think it is a human rights violation worthy of outside intervention just like slavery, ethnic cleansing, etc.
More than million girls and women alive today have been cut in 30 countries in Africa, the Middle East and Asia where FGM is concentrated 1. The guidelines were developed based on a systematic review of the best available evidence on health interventions for women living with FGM.
FGM is therefore a global concern. A systematic review of 56 studies suggested that over one in ten girls and women undergoing any form of FGM, including symbolic nicking of the clitoris Type IVexperience immediate complications, although the risks increased with Type III.
All of this is considered normal and acceptable in the life of a tribal woman. In those settings all types of FGM were found to pose an increased risk of death to the baby: However, the reason for intervening at all, is because we think that there is something wrong with FGM, even if other cultures accept it.
One third reported reduced sexual feelings. Kevin February 19, at 3: Viewed in that way, campaigners are fighting not just an isolated practice, but rather an entire way of life and worldview about the place of women in the community and society. The notion that there are some universal moral norms does not mean that everyone understands them the same way, or that everyone accepts them.
In the case of Type III, other factors include how small a hole was left for the passage of urine and menstrual blood, whether surgical thread was used instead of agave or acacia thorns, and whether the procedure was performed more than once for example, to close an opening regarded as too wide or re-open one too small.
The review also suggested that there was under-reporting. In Eritrea, for example, a survey in found that all Hedareb girls had been infibulated, compared with two percent of the Tigrinyamost of whom fell into the "cut, no flesh removed" category. Some white women come to accept this view, and insist that their daughters appear in public without a bra or top.
Reinfibulation can involve cutting the vagina again to restore the pinhole size of the first infibulation. Anthony Drinkwater February 20, at Those men who do manage to penetrate their wives do so often, or perhaps always, with the help of the "little knife".
Lori February 20, at 3:Is Female Genital Mutilation A Moral Practice Female genital mutilation (FGM) is not a morally justified practice. It is an unnecessary procedure that has no medical health benefits to the girls and women it is being performed on.
Preference Utilitarianism holds that the morally right course of action maximizes our preferences. True Utilitarian's deny that long-term consequences are a factor in the morality of any action. Utilitarianism is a belief that we are ruled by the two sovereign masters, pleasure and pain, and these two things govern or decide every human action.
Humans tend to move away from anything that could cause pain.
This belief was invented by Bentham. Female circumcision commonly referred to as Female genital mutilation (FGM), is the cutting out of the girls’ genitalia to conform to cultural traditions and religious beliefs.
FGM is classified into three types depending on the extent of damage on the female reproductive organ.
Although the term female genital mutilation had already been introduced, the term female genital cutting gained popularity in the late ’s. This was a function of perceived negativity of the word mutilation, associated judgment, and concern about impeding the potential for social change in practicing groups.
Utilitarianism Utilitarianism is based on the idea that mathematics can be applied to ethics as instead of relying on 'vague' ideas about feelings or conscience, you can classify and measure any action in terms of how many units of each of 'the two sovereign masters' (pain or pleasure) it will produce.
Being a teleological theory, Utilitarians believe that consequences are more important than motives: the stress .Download