Both class conceptions of political power claim the interests of the capitalist class control the political process. These national states became powerful and all the powers, in these states, were centered with the ruler. Though influenced by Schumpeter, later approaches, such as behavioralism and rational-choice theorywere meant to be value neutral.
Some theorists argue that these qualities cannot be transferred, thus creating a system where elitism still exists. The psychological difference that sets elites apart is that they have personal resources, for instance intelligence and skills, and a vested interest in the government; while the rest are incompetent and do not have the capabilities of governing themselves, the elite are resourceful and strive to make the government work.
It is the sovereign state that brings about unity and regulates all the associations existing in society. By tracing the concrete decision making process, pluralists examine the extent to which a power structure exists.
Role of the Elite: These two tenets are ideologically allied but logically separable. Professor Gilchrist believes like this. Lindblomwho is seen as positing a strong neo-pluralist argument, still attributed primacy to the competition between interest groups in the policy process but recognized the disproportionate influence business interests have in the policy process.
The role of the elite in the society is extremely important because it formulates the policies and takes the decisions. They abuse the power that was given to them by the people.
This reaction against the sovereign and supreme state resulted into the dawn of pluralism. They emphasise the inability of the state to enforce its will in practice against the opposition of certain groups within it. Class consciousness is achieved through the dominant ideology Abercrombie and Turner This inequality is because society has "elites"; people who have more power, perhaps through money, inheritance or social tradition than others.
William Domhoff researched local and national decision making process networks seeking to illustrate the power structure in the United States.
Government tends to be depicted as a mechanism for mediating and compromising a constantly shifting balance between group interests rather than as an active innovator or imposer of policies upon society.
It is throughout the elites, writes Rajni Kothari, that-values of political development penetrate into society at various levels and by stages. It provided the tools to analyze the structure of a political system and served as a warning of what could happen in a modern capitalistic democracy.
Power Elites and Organizations. An elite may influence one field but it cannot influence all the fields.Elite theory opposes pluralism, a tradition that assumes that all individuals, or at least the multitude of social groups, have equal power and balance each other out in contributing to democratic political outcomes representing the emergent, aggregate will of society.
Elite theory, in political science, theoretical perspective according to which (1) a community’s affairs are best handled by a small subset of its members and (2) in modern societies such an arrangement is in fact inevitable.
These two tenets are ideologically allied but logically separable. Pluralism, in political science, the view that in liberal democracies power is (or should be) dispersed among a variety of economic and ideological pressure groups and is not (or should not be) held by a single elite or group of elites.
However, class conceptions of political power (i.e., class theory and elite theory) challenge the pluralist perspective.
Pluralist Conceptions of Political Power Pluralism is a popular theory on how political power is distributed in the United States. MEANING OF PLURALISM • Pluralism is a political sociological theory of society.
• It recognizes various types of organizations present in the state like religious, political, social etc. • Pluralism refers to “ a state of affairs in which a multiplicity of groups or institutions are operative within society. abstract This article reviews contemporary elite theory in political sociology and political science.
Elite theory is based on the assumption that elite behavior has a causal relationship with general patterns of state–society relations. The article presents classical concepts of elite theory, such as elite inevitability and elite circulation.Download